PROTECTIONISM: US, CHINA and BRAZIL
Emerging from the age of mercantilism, England was the first country in the world to industrialize, hence to have no fear of competition, so it was the first to declare that it favored a free trade regime. Prussia (Germany after unification with the other Germanic states 1871), was always in favor of regional free trade zone integration, but mindful of protecting domestic producers. The US was also protectionist when it was industrializing in the 19th century, as it would have been difficult to do otherwise. Beyond the issue of state protection for domestic producers after the nation is sufficiently strong as to not fear competition, there is the issue of whether it is possible to have a pure ‘free trade’ regime.